Research Methodologies

We study how the brain makes up the mind, and how that goes awry in states of unusual perception and belief - from delusions and hallucinations in serious mental illnesses, to mystical, and religious experiences, and conspiracy theories, in the general population. We are committed to finding consilient explanations of human cognition which span these levels of analysis. With such a deep understanding we will be better placed to intervene more precisely, mitigate suffering and promote human flourishing.


We are particularly adept at designing tasks that measure behavior in humans and other animals. We deploy those tasks in various settings - whilst gathering brain and clinical data, in the context of …

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We want to understand delusions (fixed false beliefs) and hallucinations (percepts without an external stimulus). Of particular interest is the notion that these aberrant beliefs and experiences occur …

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We believe that brains implement hierarchical predictive coding - specifying predictions top-down and prediction errors bottom up.

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Sometimes psychological models make the same behavioral predictions but they appeal to radically different processes.

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